What is the Law on Medical Assistance in Dying in Canada?

Until February 2015, it was illegal in Canada to assist a person in committing suicide. The act of aiding or abetting a suicide was an indictable offence under s.241(b) of the Criminal Code.

However, the Supreme Court ruled in Carter v. Canada that the prohibition on physician-assisted suicide constitutes an unjustifiable infringement on the right to life, liberty and security of the person; this ruling spurred the government to pass federal legislation allowing eligible Canadian adults to request medical assistance in dying.

Below is a brief summary of the legislative framework of doctor assisted suicide (known in the law as medical assisted dying) in Canada. This information is drawn from the legislation itself (An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to make related amendments to other Acts (medical assistance in dying), along with a brief on medical assistance in dying written by Steve Grant, a wills and estates lawyer in Kitchener, Ontario.

What Does ‘Medical Assistance in Dying’ Mean in Canada?

Section 241.1 of the Criminal Code defines medical assistance in dying as:

  • A medical practitioner or nurse practitioner administering a substance to a person, at the person’s request, that causes the person’s death; or
  • A medical practitioner or nurse practitioner prescribing/providing a substance to a person that the person can self-administer to cause their own death.

In other words, medical assistance in dying can be a doctor or nurse administering a drug that causes a patient to die, or prescribing a drug the person can take on their own in order to die.

Who Can Request Medical Assistance in Dying?

The legislation includes safeguards intended to ensure that only adults (at least 18 years of age) who are able to request the service of their own free will and make health care decisions for themselves may request medical assistance in dying. The person must be able to give informed consent. If the person cannot put the request in writing, they can still request medical assistance in dying through another person that meets certain criteria.

Additionally, an adult must meet the following criteria to be eligible for medical assistance in dying:

  • Eligible for government-funded health services (either federal or a province/territory)
  • Have a grevious and irremediable medical condition
  • Make a voluntary request for medical assistance in dying, meaning no outside pressure or influence
  • Give informed consent to receive medical assistance in dying.

Does a Person Need to be Terminally Ill to Receive Medical Assistance in Dying?

A person does not need to be terminally ill to be eligible for medical assistance in dying in Canada. However, the person must have a grievous and irremediable medical condition.

The criteria for a ‘grievous and irremediable medical condition’ are as follows:

  • It is a serious illness, disease or disability;
  • It is in an advanced state of decline that cannot be reversed;
  • It causes unbearable mental or physical suffering that cannot be relieved under conditions that the person considers acceptable; and
  • At this point, the person’s natural death is reasonably foreseeable.

How Can Someone Request Medical Assistance in Dying?

To request medical assistance in dying, a person must:

  1. Submit a written request (some provinces and territories have a specific form).
  2. Undergo medical assessments by at least two physicians or nurse practitioners.
  3. Wait a 10-day reflection period.

This process can be undertaken with the help of a doctor or nurse practitioner.

Does a Person Require a Will to Request Medical Assistance in Dying?

The law does not require that someone complete a will before requesting this service. However, it is pertinent to do so in order to provide the person’s family with direction and clarity in the aftermath.

It can be enormously helpful to retain a lawyer who is familiar with Canada’s medical assistance in dying laws. There are will and estate lawyers in Kitchener and around the country with experience providing end-of-life assistance to patients in these circumstances.

How Communities Benefit from Building Air Supported Structures for Sports

Have you noticed more and more white bubble sports domes popping up recently? It’s not just you. Communities are increasingly investing in building air supported structures for sports rather than the traditional brick-and-stone community center.

Some people have decried this trend, asking why local governments aren’t spending that money on permanent, multi-use structures instead. They also raise the point that domes lack the aesthetic appeal of a traditional community building.

This point is valid — a dome is a dome, and while it’s neat to watch one go up, they don’t have much in the way of architectural flair.

However, there are many points in favour of building air supported structures at the municipal level.

Community Benefits of Air Supported Structures for Sports

  • Cost Savings

With local government facing increasing pressure to tighten their belts financially, the cost savings offered by a dome is a big part of its appeal. Air supported domes are far more affordable than stick-built community buildings. The ongoing maintenance is also less of an expense.

  • Flexibility

Air supported structures for sports can stay open year-round or be taken down in the summer to free up the space for other things. Obviously, this isn’t an option with permanent structures.

  • Multi-Use Potential

When they aren’t being used to for local sports, the space inside a dome can easily be employed for other types of community gatherings. They’re air conditioned in the summer, heated in the winter, and offer ample space. Movie screenings, festivals, craft sales, yoga classes, flea markets, dances, music shows, and fundraisers are among the many potential uses of an air dome.

  • Year-Round Sports

For isolated communities with few amenities, the ability to offer affordable sports like soccer, football, tennis, and rugby year-round is a boon to the young people who live there.

Uses for Air Supported Structures for Sports

The two most popular sports played under air-supported structures are tennis and soccer/football. However, it is possible to use air domes for all kinds of physical activities, including:

  • Volleyball
  • Rugby
  • American football
  • Pickleball
  • Swimming (domes can be placed over a pools)
  • Roller skating
  • Track and field

Vegan?

Now a day’s most of individuals are following a vegetarian diet. Other or spiritual beliefs, Parental choices, health issues, compassion towards animals are among the most typical factors in deciding to be a vegetarian. However, a lot of them do not fall in the category of Vegan simply due to the fact that the Veganism philosophy endeavors not to make use of or eat animal products of any kind. This means that not only meat, poultry and fish, but also animal based products like milk, curd/yoghurt, honey, pioneer, and cheese ought to be prevented. Even jellies, ice creams must be prevented as they consist of gelatin, which is stemmed from parts of an animal’s body. 

Let’s very first look at the eating practices of a vegan. A vegan diet consists only of plant products. That suggests no beef, pork, poultry, fish, or any type of meat whatsoever. It also means no dairy products of any kind, such as anything, milk, or cheese stemmed from an animal. A vegan is different from a vegetarian from this idea of declining dairy products and their more ‘hardcore’ view on animal rights. A lot of vegetarians still eat milk, butter, and so on. Vegans do not. The majority of people think this is an undesirable way of living, but in truth it is extremely healthy. The diet of a vegan consists of fresh vegetables and fruit, and consuming soy supplements to the meat so that they still get the correct amount of protein and other nutrients commonly discovered in the flesh of animals. Soy is a product of the soybean, and you can get it in a variety of different kinds. Soy milk, soybeans (undoubtedly), tofu are made from soy, and there are a variety of other brand-new up and coming brands of meat replaces stemmed from soy for vegetarians and vegans. Soy has all the protein of meat, but none of the artery obstructing fats and absurd amount of cholesterol. Being a vegan will totally free your life of practically all processed foods, and all the poisons found in fast-food and other things that your body just wasn’t meant to intake. Consuming in this way will certainly offer you an unbelievably healthier way of life.